National Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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Growing a Nation: Seeds of Change
9 - 12
Students will understand the significant historical and agricultural events and inventions from American history during the years of 1600-1929 and recognize how they impacted American families and communities, science and technology, education, economy, business, trade, labor, and legislation.
- Growing a Nation multimedia program and necessary projection equipment or computer lab
- Embedded Resource Cards, 1 copy per class
- In the Good Old Days Inventory Activity Sheet, 1 copy per student
- Chronological Event Strips for 1600-1929, 1 set per group of students
- Significant Agricultural Events Activity Sheet, 1 copy per group of students
- Cotton Bolls
- Cotton Bolls are available for purchase
- Hand lenses, optional
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
- Growing a Nation: Teaching Strategies
- Embedded Resource Cards
- Welcome to Growing a Nation
- Significant Agricultural Events Activity Sheet
- Chronological Event Strips
- In the Good Old Days Inventory Activity Sheet
cotton gin: a machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton
boll: the part of the cotton plant that contains the seeds
Did you know? (Ag Facts)
- Texas produces more cotton than any other state. (Visit the cotton map to see if your state grows cotton)2
- Cotton is a unique crop that produces both food and fiber. Cottonseed is a supplement for cattle feed, can be processed into oil, or be used to make fabric.2
- When cotton is processed it is placed in a bale which weighs about 480 pounds and is about the size of a refrigerator.
- One bale of cotton can make:
- 215 pairs of jeans
- 409 men's sport shirts
- 690 terry bath towels
- 765 men's dress shirts
- 1217 men's T-shirts
- 3,085 diapers
- 4,321 mid-calf socks
- 313,600 $100 bills
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Discuss with your students the possible answers to the question, "What are the major events or inventions that changed American families and communities, science, and technology, education, economy, business, trade, labor, and legislation from 1780-1929?"
- Next, ask students what kind of fabric the majority of their clothes are made of. (The answer is cotton.)
- Refer back to the question in step 1 and ask your students, "Could cotton impact families, communities, science, technology, education, economy, business, trade, labor, and legislation?" In this lesson students will learn how cotton impacted history.
Activity 1: Embedded Resource
- View the "Seeds of Change" portion of the Growing a Nation Multimedia Program. You may view all slides or just a portion.
- After students view selected slides, assign each student or group of students an Embedded Resource Card and ask them to be prepared to answer the questions on their card either by direct response or by using one of the attached Teaching and Learning Strategies. Note the following:
- You may want to choose a particular strategy to use with the entire class or cut the strategies into strips and ask each student to pick one or two. If the student or group of students is allowed to pick two, ask them to choose the learning strategy they prefer and put the other one back.
- As you progress through the multimedia slides, five or six embedded resources will pop up on each Growing a Nation screen with the icons designated in the Welcome to Growing a Nation document. These embedded resources match the attached Embedded Resource Cards distributed in step two. They are designed to be adaptable to a variety of teaching strategies and flexible for diverse learning styles. They detail events in American history and allow students to gain a greater understanding of the time period and historical cause and effect relationships. Each embedded resource asks higher order questions to not only increase student knowledge, but to increase their comprehension to the level of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives).
- The Teaching and Learning Strategies are designed to allow teachers to adapt and implement the multimedia program and embedded resources used in this activity. One or more chosen strategies can be applied to best suite your students and classroom.
Activity 2: In the Good Old Days
- Read the "In the Good Old Days" section of the Background Agricultural Connections portion of this lesson.
- Ask the students if daily life chores have changed since their parents were children. Ask your students if they can share their parents’ or grandparents’ childhood stories about things they did around the house that are no longer done today. Are there activities that the students do today that might someday seem dated to their children or grandchildren?
- Explain to the students that you have prepared an inventory activity sheet to determine the types of agricultural and everyday activities they have done. Tell the students that some of the activities on the list may seem like novelties, but they may have been a way of life for their parents or grandparents. Pass out the In the Good Old Days Inventory Activity Sheet, and give them time to read it over. Give students the option of adding a few items to the list.
- Ask students to complete the activity sheet by putting a check in the box if they have done the activity.
- Next, ask them to find someone in the class that has done the activity, and then write his or her name in the space. Have all the items been done by the students in class?
- Tell the students that they will now get a chance to survey their parents and their grandparents. Assign students to complete the activity sheet at home by filling in the names of their parent or guardian and, if necessary, a grandparent or neighbor over 65 to fully complete the activity sheet.
- When the homework is returned, graph the differences between the generations. As a class, count the number of activities the students did compared to those their parents and grandparents did. What kind of differences do the students notice? How many students have grown their own food? How many have made their own clothes? Where do these necessities come from today?
- Explain to the students that these differences indicate the changes that have taken place over time regarding our relationship to agriculture and our connection to food and fiber production.
Activity 2: Significant Agricultural Events and Impacts: 1600-1929 Chronology Cards
- Copy for each group or pair of students a set of the Chronological Event Strips for 1600-1929 preferably on color paper for easy sorting between groups, and then cut the events apart into strips. Notice that the strips are separated by eras so that you can select or group the events you would like to use for the activity.
- Tip: If you’d like the strips to be reused, laminate the Chronological Event Strips pages before you cut them apart.
- Provide each group with selected event strips for the time periods you are discussing. To the best of their knowledge, ask the groups of students to place the events in chronological order on their desk. Ask them how confident they are about the order.
- Provide each group of students with a Significant Agricultural Events Activity Sheet. Ask them to reorganize their chronology strips into the correct order based on the data sheet. Together the groups should consider the significance of each event and how it has affected and impacted the cultural/societal categories on the activity sheet.
- Instruct each group to place a check mark on the activity sheet, in the appropriate space, if the event had an effect on the cultural/societal category and impacted or changed how we live in the United States today. The activity sheets should be kept for future reference and completed throughout the course. As you review each era and progress through the course, students will be able to see the impact agriculture has made on the growth of the nation and how developments in agriculture have changed their lives. Ask students to rank the events periodically or when they complete the course. Which events or event do they think had the most impact? Why?
- As an optional activity, ask students to prepare an individual or group project on the event they feel had the most impact.
Activity 3: King Cotton
- Share with the students the "King Cotton" section of the Background Agricultural Connections.
- Give each student or group of students one cotton boll for ginning.
- Have your students examine the woody stem and the boll holding the cotton fibers. Tell students that there are seeds inside their boll. Ask them to predict how many seeds they think are in their boll.
- As students examine the boll, ask them if they can understand why it was so painful to pick this plant by hand. Would gloves have been available? Would it have been possible to gin cotton (separate fibers from the plant) by hand while wearing gloves? What may slaves have used to protect their hands from getting cut?
- Instruct students to gin the cotton by removing the seeds from the fibers. To enhance the experience, listen to Negro spirituals while your students are working. Inform them that slaves sang to pass time while they worked. Many Negro spirituals can be downloaded from the website, Negro Spirituals.
- Ask students the following questions:
- What cultural differences may be expressed by this music?
- Do we still use music to pass the time while we work?
- What does the kind of music we listen to say about our cultural heritage?
- Once ginning is complete, have students compare their prediction (Step 3) with the actual number of seeds and lead a class discussion.
- Were there more or less seeds than they thought?
- How did they like the work?
- Why would people have had so few changes of clothes during this period?
- Discuss the invention of the cotton gin. Ask your students how many years passed after the invention of the cotton gin until the beginning of the Civil War. Did the tension between the Northern and Southern states escalate after this important invention?
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Agriculture provides our food, fiber, and fuel. Some events in American history were impacted and shaped by agriculture.
- Many aspects of agriculture require a great deal of labor.
- Labor requirements in agriculture vary depending on the technology that is available to perform the work. The cotton gin is a good example of a technological invention that dramatically decreased the need for labor.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
For a historical perspective of cotton, download the PDF or order the video, Cotton, the Perennial Patriot.
For a discussion on modern cotton farming, share with the class an excellent online slide show: “Cotton: From Field to Fabric in Forty Frames.” This presentation describes the major steps involved in producing and processing cotton. It has great pictures and easy-to-read captions. As the teacher, you have control over the speed of the presentation which allows as much time as needed for commentary or questions. Download this free from the National Cotton Council.
Ask students to consider how many cotton bolls are needed to produce a pair of jeans. Want to find out? Borrow a scale from the science teacher and weigh a pair of jeans and one ginned cotton boll. Do the math; you’ll need to gin about 360 bolls (for jeans that weigh 3 pounds).
Have your students examine the fiber under a hand lens or simple magnification lens. They will notice that these short fibers have almost a silky appearance.
To enhance Activity 2: In the Good Old Days. try doing some of the activities from the In the Good Old Days Inventory Activity Sheet such as natural dyeing or making jam or butter. Make up inventory activity sheets for other subjects or topic areas. It is a good way to assess how much your students know about a particular subject before starting a unit.
Suggested Companion Resources
- Cotton Now & Then: Fabric-Making from Boll to Bolt (Book)
- The Story of Seeds (Book)
- Cotton Boll Kit (Kit)
- America's Heartland: Cotton Episodes (Multimedia)
- Colonial House (Multimedia)
- Growing a Nation Multimedia Program (Multimedia)
- Historical Timeline (Multimedia)
- How Farming Planted Seeds for the Internet (Multimedia)
- How It's Made: Cotton Yarn (Multimedia)
- Cotton Reader (Booklets & Readers)
- Agricultural News (Website)
- Breeding Better Cotton (Website)
- Cotton Campus (Website)
- Cotton Counts Educational Resources (Website)
- Cotton Gin Animation (Website)
- Tractor Timeline- A History of Tractors (Website)
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Culture, Society, Economy & Geography
- Discuss how agricultural practices have increased agricultural productivity and have impacted (pro and con) the development of the global economy, population, and sustainability (T5.9-12.e)
- Evaluate and discuss the impact of major agricultural events and agricultural inventions that influenced world and U.S. history (T5.9-12.g)
Science, Technology, Engineering & Math
- Correlate historical events, discoveries in science, and technological innovations in agriculture with day-to-day life in various time periods (T4.9-12.a)
Education Content Standards
5-12 History Era 4 Standard 2D: The rapid growth of 'the peculiar institution' after 1800 and the varied experiences of African Americans under slavery.
Objective 2Explain how the cotton gin and the opening of new lands in the South and West led to the increased demand for slaves.
Objective 4Describe the plantation system and the roles of their owners, their families, hired white workers, and enslaved African Americans.
NCSS 2: Time, Continuity, and Change
Objective 1Different interpretations of the history of societies, cultures, and humankind.
Objective 2Concepts such as: era, chronology, causality, change, continuity, conflict, historiography, historical method, primary and secondary sources, cause and effect, and multiple perspectives.
Objective 3That knowledge of the past in influenced by the questions investigated, the sources used, and the perspective of the historian.
Objective 7The contributions of philosophies, ideologies, individuals, institutions, and key events and turning points in shaping history.
Objective 8The importance of knowledge of the past to an understanding of the present and to informed decision-making about the future.
NCSS 8: Science, Technology, and Society
Objective 2Science and technology have had both positive and negative impacts upon individuals, societies, and the environment in the past and present.
Objective 4Consequences of science and technology for individuals and societies.
Objective 7Findings in science and advances in technology sometimes create ethical issues that test our standards and values.
Objective 11That achievements in science and technology are increasing at a rapid pace and can have both planned and unanticipated consequences.
World History Across the Eras Standard 1: Long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history.
Objective 3Assess the usefulness of the concept that the revolutions of tool-making, agriculture, and industrialization constituted the three most important turning points in human history.
World History Era 7 Standard 5A: Connections between major developments in science and technology and the growth of industrial economy and society.
Objective 2Explain how new inventions, including the railroad, steamship, telegraph, photography, and internal combustion engine, transformed patterns of global communication, trade, and state power.
Objective 3Analyze how new machines, fertilizers, transport systems, commercialization, and other developments affected agricultural production in various parts of the world.
World History Era 7 Standard 6A: Major global trends from 1750 to 1914.
Objective 1Describe major shifts in world population and urbanization in this era and analyze how such factors as industrialization, migration, changing diets, and scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends.
Common Core Connections
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.2Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.5Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.