National Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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FoodMASTER: Food Safety
3 - 5
Two 45-minute sessions
Students will measure the temperature of cold, lukewarm and hot water using a thermometer, learn about the growth of microorganisms by observing yeast growth at varying temperatures and learn proper techniques for hand washing. The use of Glo Germ (TM) gel will visually reinforce the importance of personal hygiene/hand washing.
- For the teacher: Permanent marker, hot plate, small pot with lid, water, bimetallic stemmed thermometer, 1 foam cup filled with water (or clear cup or jar).
- For each group: 1 liquid measuring cup, 3 small foam cups, 1 bimetallic stemmed thermometer, 3 packets active dry yeast, water (cold, lukewarm, boiling). Optional: 1 ice cube.
- Safe Kitchen Cooks student handout
- Scientific Inquiry: Temperature and Microorganisms student handout
- Kitchen Clean Up student handout
- For the teacher: Glo Germ™ gel, UV light.
- For each group: 1 piece of paper, pencil, sink, soap, paper towels, 1 yellow marker, 1 red marker. Optional: 1 green marker.
- Healthy Hands student handout
- Hand Washing student handout
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
- Math Enrichment Activity Key
- Teacher Answer Keys
- Student Handouts
- In a Pickle- Math Enrichment Activity
foodborne illness: a sickness caused by eating foods containing harmful microorganisms
bacteria: tiny microorganisms, some are good for you and others can make you sick
microorganism: a tiny living thing that can only be seen with a microscope
temperature danger zone: between 41 degrees Fahrenheit and 135 degrees Fahrenheit
food safety: a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
Students will be learning how to keep food safe from foodborne illnesses.
- To introduce the lesson, begin by drawing on your student's prior knowledge. Ask them, "What have your parents taught you to do at home in order to keep your food from spoiling or making you sick?" If necessary, use more guiding questions for students to identify that they keep some food in the refrigerator, they put groceries in the fridge/freezer as soon as they get home from the store, they cook foods thoroughly, etc.
- Next, establish with your students that most foods they eat on a daily basis are grown or raised on a farm. Tell your students that you are going to call out a food item. After you call out the food, they are to respond by echoing back to you the name of the animal that produces that food. For example, the teacher calls out, "Milk" and the students will respond by saying, "Cow." Repeat this process for several food items such as:
- Hamburger (Cattle)
- Bacon (Pigs)
- Eggs (Chickens)
- Yogurt (Cows)
- Chicken (Chicken nuggets or chicken fingers)
- Cheese (Cows)
- Sausage (Pigs)
- Draw a flow diagram on the board showing the "Farm to Fork" path of the majority of our food. Teach students that keeping our food safe begins on the farm. Give a brief description of each step along the way and some things that help ensure our food is safe and healthy to eat.
- Farm: Farmers take good care of their animals and crops. They follow guidelines and practices to produce food that is healthy and safe. Dairy farmers cool their milk immediately and store it in a refrigerated tank to minimize the growth of bacteria that could make us sick. Farmers also work hard to keep their farm and equipment clean and sanitized to stop the spread of harmful bacteria.
- Processing Plant: The processing plant is where a raw food product is prepared for retail sale. For example, milk is pasteurized, homogenized and processed into butter, cheese, ice cream or other dairy products at a processing plant. Meat can be cut and packaged at a processing plant or made into hamburger, sausage or sandwich meat. Processing plants have strict guidelines for sanitation and cleanliness to keep our food safe. Workers wear hair nets and clean, protective clothing.
- Grocery Store: Most consumers purchase their food from a retail grocery store. Grocery stores ensure that food is kept at the proper temperature and that it is not kept on the shelf too long.
- Your Home: Today, students will be learning what they can do at home to help keep their food safe and healthy.
Scientific Inquiry: Temperature and Microorganisms
- Ahead of time, label three cups per group “C,” “W” and “H” (C = cold, W = lukewarm, H = hot).
- Fifteen minutes prior to the activity, begin heating about two cups of water in a small pot on the hot plate. Bring to a light boil.
- Read Safe Kitchen Cooks and complete the Doodle Bugs.
- Demonstrate how to use the thermometer. First, point out the sensing area on the thermometer from the tip to the dimple. Then place the stem of the thermometer into the cup of water. Remind students that the whole sensing area must be underwater and that the stem should not touch the bottom or sides of the container. Next, watch as the needle moves and then comes to a stop. Explain the meanings of the markings on the thermometer and read the temperature.
- Divide the class into groups of four.
- Students will complete Scientific Inquiry: Temperature and Growth. For safety, let the boiling water cool slightly (170-210° F). Cold and lukewarm water may come from the tap. Add an ice cube to the cold water to ensure that it is cold enough.
- While the yeast is growing, students may complete While You Wait: Kitchen Clean Up.
- Students will make observations, complete the chart, discuss results and answer questions.
- What do you need to live and grow? (Water, food, oxygen and a constant body temperature).
- Do you need water to live? (You can only live a few days without water. In the dessert, you can only live one day without water. Could you live in super cold temperatures? Could you live in super hot temperatures like on the sun? Could you live in the ocean without air? Could you live without food?
- What did the yeast need to grow? (Time, right temperature, food (sugar), oxygen, moisture/water).
- At what temperature did the yeast grow best?
- Do other microorganisms grow at the same temperatures as yeast grows?
- What locations/temperatures are best for storing food?
While you Wait:
While the yeast is growing, students will complete While you Wait: Kitchen Clean Up. They will identify poor food safety practices and draw a super safe kitchen. Provide colored pencils for each student.
- Read Healthy Hands and complete the Doodle Bugs.
- Divide the class into groups of four to complete Scientific Inquiry: Hand Washing. Each group will need a reader, recorder, washer and prop person.
- Prop people will gather supplies.
- Readers will reread the hand washing steps.
- Recorders will trace an outline of a hand on a piece of paper.
- An adult will squeeze a drop of Glo GermTM Gel in each washer’s hands and will instruct the washers to rub the gel all over their hands.
- The prop people will shine the UV light on the washers’ hands. Remind prop people that they will need to share the UV light.
- Each group will observe the glowing areas on their washer’s hands. On the traced hand, recorders will use a yellow marker to color the glowing areas from one of the washer’s hands. (Glowing areas represent germs.)
- Washers will wash and dry their hands. Then prop people will shine the light on the washers’ hands a second time.
- Groups will look for any remaining glowing spots and recorders will draw red dots on the traced hand to represent any remaining glowing areas.
- If extra time remains, repeat the washing and observing glowing areas. This time circle any remaining glowing areas with a green marker.
- Discuss results and answer questions.
- When is it important to wash your hands? (Before you cook and eat. After touching raw meat and eggs, sneezing, coughing, blowing your nose, using the restroom, playing outside and touching your pet.)
- If we plan to cook or eat right after recess, what should we do when we come inside? (Wash our hands.)
- What could happen if we started cooking or eating before we washed our hands?
- Do you think washing with soap and water removes more germs than just washing with water?
- Do you think you would see more or less germs if you rubbed you hands together more? If you washed for a longer or shorter time? If you used hotter or colder water?
In a Pickle: Complete the attached math enrichment activity. Students will learn how food can be preserved using vinegar. Students will calculate the correct ratios for the pickling process.
Suggested Companion Resources
- Food Group Puzzle (Activity)
- Food Safety from Farm to Fork: How Fast Will They Grow? (Activity)
- Food Safety from Farm to Fork: Mighty Microbes (Activity)
- Food Safety from Farm to Fork: Operation Kitchen Impossible (Activity)
- Food Safety from Farm to Fork: Playing it Safe (Activity)
- Glo Germ Set (Activity)
- Germ Stories (Book)
- Look Inside Food (Book)
- Eat Happy Project video series (Multimedia)
- Food Safety Music (Multimedia)
- Virtual Food Safety Labs (Multimedia)
- Virtual Labs: Understanding Water Activity (Multimedia)
- Fight Bac! Food Safety Education (Website)
- The Science of Cooking (Website)
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Food, Health, and Lifestyle
- Explain the practices of safe food handling preparation, and storage (T3.3-5.e)
Education Content Standards
Health Standard 1: Comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.
1.5.1Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health.
Health Standard 7: Demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.
Common Core Connections
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.4Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.5Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.6Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
Mathematics: Practice Standards
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP1Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP4Model with mathematics. Students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. Students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP5Use appropriate tools strategically. Students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understandings of concepts.