9 - 12
Students will learn about the production and processing of cotton and discuss the impact it has had on the history and culture of the United States.
- Cotton bolls*
- Hand lenses
- Linking History and Technology handout
*A Cotton Boll Kit is available for purchase from agclassroomstore.com.
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
Linking History and Technology Handout
gin: to separate cotton fiber from seeds and waste material
boll: the part of a cotton plant that contains the seeds; the pod or capsule of a plant
Did you know? (Ag Facts)
- Cotton has been cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7,000 years.1
- Today, US cotton is entirely machine harvested.1
- Some of today's high-capacity gins can turn out as much as 30,000 pounds of clean, cotton fiber in one hour.1
Background - Agricultural Connections
Cotton and Slavery
It’s common knowledge that slavery was a source of conflict between the North and South leading up to the Civil War. But why did the South want or need slaves? Cotton. By examining this important crop, your students will learn how cotton influenced the slave trade, slave culture, economic policies, the Civil War, and the industrial revolution.
Cotton picking was a job given to healthy, adult slaves. These slaves handpicked cotton in the fields all day. Then, by candlelight they would join the elderly, infirm, or children to gin the cotton by hand. Ginning cotton means removing the lint or fiber from the seed. The more lint one removed from the seed, the more profit could be made from each boll. It would have been important for slaves to remove as much lint as possible from each seed. In this class activity, your students may find anywhere from fourteen to forty-two seeds per boll, as did the slaves. A slave could gin approximately one pound of cotton a day, or about 120 cotton bolls. After completing the following classroom activity, your students will be able to determine how many bolls of cotton they would need to make one pair of jeans.
Invention of the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney is generally credited with the invention of the cotton gin. His idea for this machine came while he was watching a cat try to catch a chicken in the barnyard. The cat’s unsuccessful attempt left him with a claw full of feathers and no chicken (more detail about Eli Whitney’s machine can be found in the book Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond). Whitney decided to try a similar approach with cotton, creating a gin operated by hand-crank that would rake the seeds from the fiber. In 1794, his machine was patented, revolutionizing the production of cotton. One slave could now gin fifty pounds of cotton per day. Did this mean plantation owners needed fewer slaves? No, the gin made cotton a more profitable crop because less time was required for ginning, but plantation owners now wanted more slaves to plant, grow, and harvest more cotton.
Cotton production increased across the South following the invention of the cotton gin. At the same time, factories that could process cotton were being built across the north. Unlike wool, which is a very long and scale-like fiber, cotton is a short and smooth fiber. These physical differences make wool easier to spin into thread than cotton, either by hand or by machine. Spinning cotton by hand is time consuming and difficult. Wool, and to some extent linen, was the fabric of choice until machine technology made the production of cotton thread viable. Cotton production in the South was only economical or possible with the manufacturing industry of the North. The southern economy had virtually no manufacturing and was based solely on production.
Cotton Production Today
Cotton requires a long, warm growing season, meaning it cannot be grown in colder, northern climates. Today, cotton is grown across the southern United States from Virginia to California. Cotton also requires ample water but grows well in the arid southwest with modern irrigation technology. California is well-known for their America Pima cotton, which produces a finer, more expensive fiber than the more common American Upland cotton. Cotton gins are now very large machines that work much faster than Eli Whitney’s simple machine. What happens to all the cottonseed after it is ginned? Most of those fuzzy seeds are fed to dairy cattle or processed into cottonseed oil, which can be found in nearly every kind of snack food, including chocolate candy bars.
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Ask students to think about the economic, cultural, and political causes of the Civil War. Ask them, "Why did the South want or need slaves more than the North?"
- Allow your students to offer their answers. Use guided questions and display the Interactive Map for cotton production in the United States. As students study the map, help them connect the South with cotton and the demand for labor to produce and process it.
- Inform students that they will be learning how cotton impacted events in American history.
- Find a local source for cotton bolls or order the Cotton Boll Kit.
- Note: Modern grown cotton has a longer fiber than the cotton harvested in the 1800s.
- Share the information found in the Background Agricultural Connections section of the lesson about cotton and slavery.
- Give each student or group of students one cotton boll.
- Have your students examine the woody stem of the cotton boll. Ask students if they can understand why it was so painful to pick this plant by hand. Ask, "Would gloves have been available?"
- Have your students predict how many seeds are in each boll, and instruct them to gin their cotton boll.
- Have students listen to songs that were sung by slaves while they performed the tedious work of ginning cotton. Many spirituals are available from negrospirituals.com. Ask questions such as:
- What cultural differences may be expressed by this music?
- Do we still use music to pass the time while we work?
- What does the kind of music we listen to say about our cultural heritage?
- Once ginning is complete have students count the number of seeds found in their boll and compare it to their estimate.
- Next, Have your students weigh their fibers from one boll, and compare it to the weight of a pair of jeans. A pair of jeans would be almost one hundred percent cotton (minus a zipper and a button).
- Ask students to consider how many cotton bolls are needed to produce a pair of jeans. Share the information from the Linking History and Technology handout.
- Have students examine the fiber under a hand lens or simple magnification lens. They will notice that these short fibers have almost a silky appearance.
- Discuss the invention of the cotton gin using the information found in the Background Agricultural Connections section of the lesson. Ask your students:
- How many years passed between the invention of the cotton gin and the beginning of the Civil War. (67 years. The cotton gin was patented in 1794 and the Civil War began in 1861)
- Did the tension between the North and the South escalate after this important invention? (Yes, because the demand for cotton increased with the improved ability to gin the cotton)
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting this activity, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Historical events such as the Civil War as well as technological inventions impact agriculture and day-to-day living.
- As agriculture has evolved and more technological advancements have been made, changes in our society also occur.
- Cotton played a large role in the civil war.
- Cotton is still an important agricultural crop today.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
- Share the slide show Cotton: From Field to Fabric in Forty Frames, which describes the major steps of modern cotton production and processing.
- Ask your students to listen to or read some of the arguments for ending slavery. Can they also identify why abolishing slavery would have been seen as a problem for those farmers who were trying to grow crops? What would have to be done differently without the use of slaves on a cotton farm? What did a general farm laborer earn in the 1800s?
- Visit the Interactive Map Project website and view the map representing Cotton Production in the United States. Identify the state that produces the most cotton, then find where your state ranks for cotton production. Many states do not produce cotton. Based upon the map, what climate does cotton grow best in?
Suggested Companion Resources
Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin (Book)
Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (Book)
Cotton Boll Kit (Kit)
Cotton Education Kit (Kit)
Cotton... From Field to Fabric (Multimedia)
Planet Money Makes a T-shirt (Multimedia)
America's Heartland: Cotton Episodes (Multimedia)
How It's Made: Cotton Yarn (Multimedia)
Cotton Reader (Booklets & Readers)
Agricultural News (Website)
Breeding Better Cotton (Website)
Cotton Gin Animation (Website)
Cotton Counts Educational Resources (Website)
Cotton Campus (Website)
- Statistics and graphics from the National Cotton Council's Cotton Counts educational materials.
Debra Spielmaker & Rose Judd-Murray
Utah Agriculture in the Classroom